presenter on the subject of the course or presentation. Contact: **Campus- Booster ID: [email protected] Presenter’s Name. The Linux Kernel. Chaque option a un volume horaire de heures, alternant cours à distance et exercices pratiques sous la Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator. Précédent Linux Technologies – System Fundamentals Suivant [email protected] localhost:~$ find /home -type f -exec ls -lh {} \; > /dev/null [email protected]:~$ ls -l.

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The vast majority of personal computer users always had access to only Microsoft operating systems first DOS, then Windows.

The average user is therefore generally inclined to think that there is only one way to use a computer coirs one way to do things, and that a computer can do everything and just what its system does and if it does not It can not be done.

In front of a demonstration of the capabilities of one of the many Linux-based free systems, the user in general is always quite obsessed. The most frequent comments are: We will therefore try to set up a three-pound mini-shock therapy to deal with the acute phase of the disease.

For more accurate treatment, refer to the exaggerated documentation available on the network, library, or local LUG, Linux User Group local area scattered around the boot. It was August 25,as Linus Torvalds announced the Linux project, with a liunx that has since become quite famous. That things have evolved a lot from that first step is evident just by reading the message that Torvalds announced to have created an operating system saying “It’s just a hobby, it will not be a big or professional thing like GNU.

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It’s really everywhere, and there’s a good chance you’re using it on some “unsuspecting” device such as the GPS navigator, the camera, the router, and what’s more: Of course, Linux has failed to retire neither Windows nor MacOS, but there are still tens of millions of people using it every day on their PC. And there are a lot of developers who are actively working on Linux development, and nowadays, a minority are among them who do it for free, just for passion. According to the document published by the Linux Foundation, it is now 7.

Kernel developers are few, so anyone who can prove that they can write valid code tend to have no problems finding bids of work”. There are over big and small companies that have made “significant” changes to the Linux kernel. An intense activity that has allowed Linux to evolve greatly.

Then these changes have become more and more significant contributions, and today Linux has come to an enviable state: The free Linux operating system, which can be used for free after it has been installed, for computers and processors, Linux consists of the integration of the software called “kernel Linux” which is distributed under Gnu General Public License after being created by Linus Torvalds and developed by Richard Stallman with Gnu system programming elements and other free licenses.

Initially thought by the Finnish programmer Linus Torvalds as a Unix-based system, over time it has been used as a basis for the realization of open source operating systems that are normally identified by the same name. Known in the design of server technology, Linux has enjoyed the growth of the IT support of major electronics companies, including IBM, Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Red Hat and Novell, and is used as a basic operating system for computers and hardware of all kinds from the most advanced technology tools such as desktop and supercomputers, embedded systems such as mobile phones and handhelds, and netbooks.

It is in that Linus Torvalds presented at the University of Helsinki the first “stable” version of the operating system, which then became one of the most widely used and traded among the people of the Internet.

However, there supnifo no single Linux version but there are several “distributions” that are created by community of developers or companies that have chosen, prepared and compiled the programs to be included. All distributions share the original Linux kernel the core created by Torvalds and based on the programming of the different versionswhile they differ in the so-called “software park”, ie the programs prepared and selected by the developers to the software management system and the service and maintenance services offered.

Usually we buy a ready-to-use, “turnkey” computer. Windows is almost always pre-installed at the factory including an OEM-type license, ie hardware-related and therefore not transferable to another computer if you want to change the machine.

We often ask the seller to install more or less legally depending on the honesty of the parts all we need, so we do not always know exactly what we bought, which tools are part of the Windows endowment and what have been added to it later. In fact, Windows itself has a very small number of pre-installed xours, so when you open the box you will be able to surf the internet, listen to music or see photos. Windows is therefore just “just” a little more than an operating system.


All the applications you need are to be installed later, one by one, downloading the installation files from their sites or by inserting CD or DVD from time to time. Linux-based systems, on the other hand, are far more than just operating systems. They are available in the form of distributions, so software collections that include a rich and variable depending on who created linuz and the purposes for which it cuors created selection of personal productivity applications, manipulation of multimedia files couurs, video, photofor entertainment, didactics, software development, system management and more, to be installed together with the operating system.

Also, what may be missing can be searched, found, downloaded, and installed by a special application, drawing on the distribution repositories, mostly free but not limited to. The concept of “installing the app from the store” is now familiar to smartphone users, but it really is born before these, right in the world of Linux distributions. Installing Ubuntu perhaps the most well-known Linux distribution also includes the LibreOffice suite for individual productivity, web browsing and e-mail programs, and Ubuntu Software Center, the “store” that you can choose from thousands of download programs with one click.

This means, for example, that a moment after installation you can go back to the degree thesis you were writing with LibreOffice already installedor configure your mail account on Thunderbird which is already installed to get all the available your mail and maybe open that attached PDF file with a viewer which is already installed.

As well as non-secondary, the update of the programs is centralized and is just like any other operating system package: Considering that Debian the distribution from which Ubuntu is derived and dozens of “sisters” and its package management system was born insupinfk can also say that in Linux operating systems it has practically always been this way.

Another detail that most Linux users are probably not even worried about, but if they remind you of it when they are upgrading to Windows: When updating any application you’re using – including kernels – it’s never necessary to close any applicationwhich continues to function on a regular basis; in some cases it is suggested – never imposed – to reboot the application; only in the kernel case the reboot is suggested, which is the only way to load the new version. For a while, maybe.

The first program that is usually installed after Windows is an antivirus, for obvious reasons. This is for Windows users, but not for Linux users.

Linux viruses are so few and so rare that antivirus is considered a useless waste of resources. Those that exist are primarily installed on computers where e-mail servers are turned on, and are used to protect Windows systems from any malicious emails.

This does not mean that Linux, Linux programs, or open source software are generally vulnerable. As mentioned elsewhere, “free software is free, not perfect: Vulnerabilities are found and corrected exactly as for proprietary software rather, because source code is public domain under the eyes of everyone and the process occurs in the sunlight, generally at higher speeds than in proprietary software.

But viruses, they just have not seen them, and even in this case we can say that in Linux operating systems it has practically always been this way. Let’s face it right away: It’s not always that way. In the past, the installation of a Linux operating system was complicated, rather than the uncomplicated Windows system.

Windows users are not aware of this, since, as already mentioned, they generally find it already installed on the PC, while Linux users generally install it by themselves and surely install it in the past we ciurs talking about. For this reason, over time, the developers have tried to simplify the installation process, so that today it’s all very simple and friendly: Like Windows, but with some differences that are not new details:.

In this second case, think about it cojrs or you can choose to let you commands and drive you up, if you lihux what to doscratching the hard disk space and kinux up the system well.

Incidentally, it is not the opposite: Windows behaves like Ubuntu only if it finds other versions of Windows, but does not find other operating systems. Almost all Linux distributions in the last decade are now under this form.

The desktop environements on GNU/Linux

This means that instead of installing the system on the uspinfo disk you can choose coues boot it as if it was already installed. Nothing will be touched on the hard drive, but after a while we will have a fully functioning system, useful to familiarize yourself with the interface and to verify supinco all hardware is well-supported and working before proceeding with a real installation own.


The only difference will be in performance, due to lower data access speeds from llnux media CD and DVD than a hard disk, and the inability to save configurations and new programs that may be installed. Same principle, with the advantage of being able to spare space liunx the way, Windows user: Did you know you can create partitions on a USB stick?

For files and personal system configurations live. Not to mention that a USB stick occupies less space than a disc. Do you really need the cloud when your program can keep it in your pocket and run it on any computer? It is therefore highly probable that a Linux user always spins with one or more USB sticks in his pocket with some live distribution installed above: In fact, in these cases, the PC can be started with a Linux Live system it can not be infected by any virusesand save the data by copying it to an external media before proceeding to formatting and reinstalling the operating system.

And anti-virus, and applications, one by one. Comparing operating systems based on Microsoft Windows and Linux has become a common topic of discussion among their users. The two operating systems compete in both the personal computer market and the server market, and are used in government offices, schools, homes, Internet and intranet servers, supercomputers and embedded systems. Windows has dominated the personal computer market since the s, while Linux has maintained a large market share in web servers, render farms and supercomputers, and in embedded systems such as mobile phones and modems.

These two SOs differ for the underlying ccours, cost, ease of use, versatility and stability. Developers of the two products are constantly trying to improve, especially in their weaknesses.

This comparison will tend to analyze from the origins of the historical “war” to gain more users linxu the modes of distribution of the two systems. The weakest points mentioned for the two operating systems are the low stability of Windows and spuinfo least amount of software available dours Linux. In both fields, however, the situation has improved over time. Linux’s main strength is to respect the user’s cohrs of the user: In the case of Linux, each deployment can be a server because the core kernel is unique, although dedicated server versions have features such as deleting the graphics interface later installed but not recommended for security reasons and specific software configurations preset.

Some Linux supinnfo are specialized in specific tasks. Similarly, different versions of Windows exist. InLinux distributions were considered difficult to install.

Over the years, installation processes have been simplified. Starting inthe year when the first version of Knoppix was distributed, the creation of numerous LiveCD bootable distro has allowed users to try Linux before installing it.

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Both the Windows and Linux installation process except for exceptions make use of wizards to help users during installation. Unlike most common Linux distributions, Windows drivers typically curs installed separately. Numerous distributions are completely free for private and corporate users.

There are companies Red Hat, Canonical, SUSE and others that, by way of compensation, provide technical support and other services for their business distributions.

This adds to the ability to modify the system by improving the source code provided with the GPL license and distributing it freely and legally in the form of new coues. Debate on the advantages and disadvantages of Linux is often included in the comparison between Microsoft Windows and Linux, well-known to the workforce; because some software houses, such as Adobe, do not want porting on various distributions.

The Linux Foundation is an organization formed by major software and hardware manufacturers whose goal is to improve interoperability between the different distributions. Many famous companies have joined the Linux Foundation including: It is currently the most appealing standard with which all major distributions are adapting. Distributions can be specialized for different uses: Additionally, some distributions include only free software. Currently, over three hundred distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen of them being more famous for their daily use.

Such distributions therefore belong to the sub-family of GNU operating systems and, dupinfo generally, to the family of Unix-like systems, because they are ,inux and to some extent compatible with it. A typical distribution includes, in increasing order courx abstraction, the following software components, in addition to the related technical and manual documentation:. Each distribution typically defaults to its own graphical interface, then extensively customizable with other freely available desktop environments.

A part of the software included in some distributions may suinfo proprietary and unavailable as sources.