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A chess prodigyhe is considered by many as one of the greatest players of all time, widely renowned for his exceptional endgame skill and speed of play.
Born in Havana, he beat Cuban champion Juan Corzo in a match on 17 Novembertwo days before his thirteenth birthday. Over the next several years, Capablanca had a strong series of tournament results.
After several unsuccessful attempts to arrange a match with the then world champion Emanuel LaskerCapablanca finally won the title from Lasker in Capablanca was undefeated for eight years from 10 February to 21 Marcha period which included the world championship match with Lasker.
Capablanca lost the title in to Alexander Alekhinewho had never beaten Capablanca before the match. Following unsuccessful attempts to arrange a return match over many years, relations between them became bitter. Capablanca continued his excellent tournament results in this period but withdrew from serious chess in He made a comeback inwith some good results, but also showed symptoms of high blood pressure.
His last major tournament was the AVRO tournament ofwhere he performed disappointingly. He died in rakl a brain hemorrhage. Capablanca excelled in simple positions and endgames; Bobby Fischer described him as possessing a “real light touch”. He could play tactical chess when necessary, and had good defensive technique.
He wrote several chess books during his career, of which Chess Fundamentals was regarded by Mikhail Botvinnik as the best chess book ever written. Capablanca preferred not to present detailed analysis but focused on critical moments in a ajedgez. His style of chess was influential in the play of future world champions Bobby Fischer and Anatoly Karpov. At the age of eight he was taken to Havana Capablanxa Club, which had hosted many important contests, but on the advice of a doctor he was not allowed to play frequently.
He left Columbia after one semester to devote himself to chess full-time. Capablanca’s skill rail rapid chess lent itself to simultaneous exhibitionsand his increasing reputation in these events led capablaca a US-wide tour in This performance gained him sponsorship for an exhibition match that year against Marshall, the US champion who had won the Cambridge Springs tournament ahead of World Champion Emanuel Lasker and Dawid Janowskiand whom Chessmetrics ranks as one of the world’s top three players at his peak.
After the match, Capablanca said that he had never opened a book on chess openings. Capablanca won six games and drew one in the New York State Championship. Both Capablanca and Charles Jaffe won their four games in the knock-out preliminaries and met in a match to decide the winner, who would be the first to win two games.
The first game was drawn and Capablanca won the second and third game. Capablanca was now recognized as a serious contender for the world championship. Lasker accepted his challenge while proposing 17 conditions for the match. Capablanca objected aejdrez some of the conditions, which favored Lasker, and the match did not take place. In SeptemberCapablanca accepted a job in the Cuban Capablancs Office,  which made him financially secure for life. Petersburg chess tournament was the first in which Capablanca confronted Lasker under tournament conditions.
Despite a determined effort by Lasker, Capablanca still seemed on course for ultimate victory. However, in their second game of the final, Lasker reduced Capablanca to a helpless position and Capablanca was so shaken by this that he blundered away his next game to Siegbert Tarrasch. His real, incomparable gifts first began to make themselves known at the time of St. Petersburg,when I too came to know him personally. Neither before nor afterwards have I seen — and I cannot imagine as well — such a flabbergasting quickness of chess comprehension as that possessed by the Capablanca of that epoch.
Enough to say that he gave all the St. Petersburg masters the odds of 5—1 in quick games — and won! With all this he was always good-humoured, the darling of the ladies, and enjoyed fundamsntos good health — really a dazzling appearance.
That he came second to Lasker must be entirely ascribed to his youthful levity — he was already playing as well as Lasker. After the breakdown of his attempt to negotiate a title match inCapablanca drafted rules for the conduct of future challenges, which were agreed by the other top players at the Saint Petersburg tournament, including Lasker, and approved at the Mannheim Congress later that year.
The main points were: World War I began in midsummerbringing international chess to a virtual halt for more than four years. It is eaul said that Marshall had kept this secret for use against Capablanca since his defeat in their match;  however, Edward Winter discovered several games between and where Marshall passed up opportunities to use the Raup Attack against Capablanca; and an game that used a similar line.
Nevertheless, Capablanca found a way through the complications and won. The Hastings Victory tournament of was the first international competition on Allied soil since In JanuaryEmanuel Lasker and Capablanca signed an agreement to play a World Championship match innoting that Capablanca was not free to play in Because of the delay, Lasker insisted that if he resigned the title, then Fubdamentos should become World Champion.
Lasker cspablanca previously included in his agreement before World War I to play Akiba Rubinstein for the title a similar clause that if he resigned the title, it should become Rubinstein’s.
Capablanca signed an agreement that accepted this point, and soon afterwards published a letter confirming it. The match was played in March—April ; Lasker resigned it after fourteen games, having lost four games and won none. Kramnik explained that Capablanca was twenty years younger, a slightly stronger player, and had more recent competitive practice.
José Raúl Capablanca
Edward Winter, after a lengthy summary of the facts, concludes that, “The press capablxnca dismissive of Lasker’s wish to confer the title on Capablanca, even questioning the legality of such an initiative, and in it regarded the Cuban as having become fkndamentos champion by dint of defeating Lasker over the board.
InCapablanca also gave a simultaneous exhibition in Cleveland against opponents, the largest in history up to that time, winning and drawing one — setting a record for the best winning percentage ever in a large simultaneous exhibition.
A group of Argentinian businessmen, backed by a guarantee from the president of Argentina ajerez, promised the funds for a World Championship match between Capablanca and Alekhine in In the New York chess tournamentplayed from February 19 to March 23,  six of the world’s strongest masters played a quadruple round-robinwith the others being Alekhine, Rudolf SpielmannMilan VidmarNimzowitsch and Marshall,  with Bogoljubow and Emanuel Lasker not present.
Since Capablanca had won the New York chess tournament overwhelmingly and had never lost a game to Alekhine, the Cuban was regarded by most pundits as the clear favorite in their World Chess Championship match. Their relationship became bitter, and Alekhine demanded much higher appearance fees for tournaments in which Capablanca also played.
After losing the World Championship in lateCapablanca played more often in tournaments, hoping to strengthen his claim for a rematch.
Despite these excellent results, Capablanca’s play showed signs of decline: After winning an event at New York inhe withdrew from serious chess,  perhaps disheartened by his inability capaboanca secure a return match against Alekhine,  and played only less serious games at the Manhattan Chess Club and simultaneous displays. It is from this period that the only surviving voiced film faul survives.
Hollander asks Capablanca for his views on the upcoming world Championship match between Euwe and Alekhine in October of that year Euwe’s game is clear and straightforward. Euwe’s game—not so strong as Alekhine’s in some respects—is more evenly balanced. At first Capablanca did not divorce his first wife, as he had not intended to remarry.
Olga, Capablanca’s second wife, wrote that she met him in the late spring of ; by late October the pair were deeply in love, and Capablanca recovered his ambition to prove he was the world’s best player.
Starting his comeback at the Hastings tournament of —35, Capablanca finished fourth, although coming ahead of Mikhail Botvinnik and Andor Lilienthal. The loss to Flohr was because of being disturbed while in time trouble by funsamentos bystander Max Euwe. Capablanca’s fel blood pressure was not correctly diagnosed and treated until after the AVRO tournament, and caused him to lose his train of thought towards the end of playing sessions.
Fundamentos del Ajedrez by José Raúl Capablanca (2 star ratings)
After winning at Paris in and placing second in a slightly stronger tournament at Ajedrezz inCapablanca played for Cuba in the 8th Chess Olympiadheld in Capablaanca Aires, and won the gold medal for the best performance on the top board.
Alekhine declined, saying he was obliged to be available to defend his adopted homeland, France, as World War II had just broken out. The day before his fatal strokehis vascular specialist Dr A. Schwarzer strongly advised him that his life was endangered unless he totally relaxed, but Capablanca said that he couldn’t because vapablanca ex-wife and children had started court proceedings against him. The doctor blamed his death on “his troubles and rauul. On 7 MarchCapablanca was observing a skittles game and chatting with friends at the Manhattan Chess Club in New York City, when he asked for help removing his coat, and collapsed shortly afterward.
Eminent physician Dr Eli Moschcowitz administered first aid then arranged an ambulance. He was taken to Mount Sinai Hospitalwhere he died at 6: Capablanca’s great rival Emanuel Lasker had died in the same hospital only a year earlier. The hospital admissions report stated:. When admitted to Mt. Sinai Hospital, the examination showed: A lumbar puncture was performed which showed hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid CSF with a pressure of ajefrez of water. The full autopsy, by Drs Moschcowitz, Prill, and Levin, fundamentoa that the right thalamus was almost totally destroyed, and in its place was a hematoma 2 inches wide and 2 inches high.
The whole ventricular system and cisterna magna were flooded with blood. The gyri were flattened and sulcus neuroanatomy narrowed, consistent with years of extreme hypertension. His heart was enlarged, g instead of the normal — g, including 3 cm hypertrophy of left ventricle wall. This wall had a cappablanca of subendiocardial hemorrhages, which was later proved to be common in patients with severe intercranial hypertension. This caused the release of a large amount of vasoactive substances into the bloodstream, including acetylcholine and noradrenaline that caused these hemorrhages.
The lumbar puncture was a bad idea, as intracranial hypertension is now a well-known contraindication because it releases the pressure of the capablwnca fluid counteracting the herniating force of the hypertension. His old rival Alekhine wrote in a tribute to Capablanca: Capablanca was snatched from the chess world much too soon.
Fundamentos del Ajedrez
With his death, we have lost a very great chess genius whose like we shall never see again. An annual Capablanca Memorial tournament has been held in Cuba, most often in Havana, since capablnca As an adult, Capablanca lost only 34 serious games.
During this streak, which included his World Championship match against Lasker, Capablanca played 63 games, winning 40 and drawing Statistical ranking systems place Capablanca high among the greatest players of all time. He concluded that Capablanca was the strongest of those surveyed, with Lasker and Botvinnik sharing second place. Boris SpasskyWorld Champion from toconsidered Capablanca the best player of all time.
Fischer reported that in the s, older members of the Manhattan Chess Club spoke of Capablanca’s performances with awe. Capablanca excelled in simple positions and endgames, and his positional judgment was outstanding, so much so that most capabblanca to attack him came to grief without any ajederz defensive efforts on his part.